Blog di Bernardino (Dino) Ciuffetti

23 Ott 18 How to disable Diffie-Hellman ciphers on apache

If you are getting errors like “DH key too small” you can avoid using DH ciphersuites on apache.
You can obtain that using Perfect forward secrecy, or disabling all DH ciphersuites like this:


06 Lug 18 How to setup xtables GeoIP for iptables on OpenWRT

I’m not racist, but sometimes you may need to keep some people out of your network based on its geographical region… in reality I’m referring to its public source IP address.

Requests are coming from the big internet, so you can check if the source IP of the peers that are trying to connect to your powerful OpenWRT Linux router are coming from a particular region and you may want to stop all those requests accordingly.

If you are using iptables and ip6tables (if you are on linux this is the standard) you can setup GeoIP based packet filtering with iptables: it’s an iptables extension that make use of the glorious and free MaxMind GeoLite Legacy Downloadable Database (that is now dying…).

On OpenWRT this is supported automatically, but generally your router does not have all the disk space to host the entire GeoLite GeoIP database. So, you need to prepare all the records of the geographical regions that you want to block on your firewall.

Take a linux workstation or server (your notebook, a raspberry pi you own always on, one of your client’s server… better not IMHO…) and run those commands:

root@firegate2:~# mkdir /tmp/temp
root@firegate2:~# cd /tmp/temp
root@firegate2:/tmp/temp# /usr/share/xt_geoip/xt_geoip_dl
–2018-07-05 23:54:40–
Risoluzione di (…,, 2400:cb00:2048:1::6810:262f, …
Connessione a (||:80… connesso.
Richiesta HTTP inviata, in attesa di risposta… 200 OK
Lunghezza: 1715246 (1,6M) [application/octet-stream]
Salvataggio in: “GeoIPv6.csv.gz”

GeoIPv6.csv.gz 100%[================================================================>] 1,64M –.-KB/s in 0,1s

2018-07-05 23:54:40 (10,9 MB/s) – “GeoIPv6.csv.gz” salvato [1715246/1715246]

–2018-07-05 23:54:40–
Riutilizzo della connessione esistente a
Richiesta HTTP inviata, in attesa di risposta… 200 OK
Lunghezza: 2540312 (2,4M) [application/zip]
Salvataggio in: “” 100%[================================================================>] 2,42M 11,3MB/s in 0,2s

2018-07-05 23:54:40 (11,3 MB/s) – “” salvato [2540312/2540312]

TERMINATO –2018-07-05 23:54:40–
Tempo totale: 0,4s
Scaricati: 2 file, 4,1M in 0,4s (11,1 MB/s)
inflating: GeoIPCountryWhois.csv
root@firegate2:/tmp/temp# /usr/share/xt_geoip/xt_geoip_build -D . *.csv
209370 entries total
0 IPv6 ranges for A1 Anonymous Proxy
32 IPv4 ranges for A1 Anonymous Proxy
0 IPv6 ranges for A2 Satellite Provider
36 IPv4 ranges for A2 Satellite Provider
3 IPv6 ranges for AD Andorra
26 IPv4 ranges for AD Andorra
51 IPv6 ranges for AE United Arab Emirates
302 IPv4 ranges for AE United Arab Emirates
… and continues …
11 IPv6 ranges for ZM Zambia
64 IPv4 ranges for ZM Zambia
14 IPv6 ranges for ZW Zimbabwe
59 IPv4 ranges for ZW Zimbabwe

The script /usr/share/xt_geoip/xt_geoip_build it’s part of xtables-addons package that you may or may not find on your distribution. Search on google for that.

This will create LE and BE directories. Now you want to extract only the geo regions that you need (ex: CN,UA,TW,VN,VG,KP,VI,KR), like that:

root@firegate2:/tmp/temp# du -csh BE/CN.iv? BE/UA.iv? BE/TW.iv? BE/VN.iv? BE/VG.iv? BE/KP.iv? BE/VI.iv? BE/KR.iv? LE/CN.iv? LE/UA.iv? LE/TW.iv? LE/VN.iv? LE/VG.iv? LE/KP.iv? LE/VI.iv? LE/KR.iv?
36K BE/CN.iv4
48K BE/CN.iv6
24K BE/UA.iv4
16K BE/UA.iv6
8,0K BE/TW.iv4
4,0K BE/TW.iv6
4,0K BE/VN.iv4
4,0K BE/VN.iv6
4,0K BE/VG.iv4
4,0K BE/VG.iv6
4,0K BE/KP.iv4
0 BE/KP.iv6
4,0K BE/VI.iv4
4,0K BE/VI.iv6
8,0K BE/KR.iv4
4,0K BE/KR.iv6
36K LE/CN.iv4
48K LE/CN.iv6
24K LE/UA.iv4
16K LE/UA.iv6
8,0K LE/TW.iv4
4,0K LE/TW.iv6
4,0K LE/VN.iv4
4,0K LE/VN.iv6
4,0K LE/VG.iv4
4,0K LE/VG.iv6
4,0K LE/KP.iv4
0 LE/KP.iv6
4,0K LE/VI.iv4
4,0K LE/VI.iv6
8,0K LE/KR.iv4
4,0K LE/KR.iv6
352K totale

So, in this case we will need 352 Kb of router disk space. After we created the /usr/share/xt_geoip/BE/ and /usr/share/xt_geoip/LE/ directories on our router’s filesystem:

root@dam2ktplinkrouter:~# mkdir -p /usr/share/xt_geoip/BE /usr/share/xt_geoip/LE

We are going to copy those files on our OpenWRT router:

root@firegate2:/tmp/temp# scp LE/CN.iv? LE/UA.iv? LE/TW.iv? LE/VN.iv? LE/VG.iv? LE/KP.iv? LE/VI.iv? LE/KR.iv? root@
root@’s password:
CN.iv4 100% 35KB 109.8KB/s 00:00
CN.iv6 100% 47KB 76.0KB/s 00:00
UA.iv4 100% 23KB 108.4KB/s 00:00
UA.iv6 100% 15KB 87.9KB/s 00:00
TW.iv4 100% 4704 47.5KB/s 00:00
TW.iv6 100% 3104 77.8KB/s 00:00
VN.iv4 100% 3888 98.9KB/s 00:00
VN.iv6 100% 3584 87.9KB/s 00:00
VG.iv4 100% 536 40.1KB/s 00:00
VG.iv6 100% 224 20.0KB/s 00:00
KP.iv4 100% 40 3.9KB/s 00:00
KP.iv6 100% 0 0.0KB/s 00:00
VI.iv4 100% 392 30.6KB/s 00:00
VI.iv6 100% 160 14.4KB/s 00:00
KR.iv4 100% 8128 105.8KB/s 00:00
KR.iv6 100% 3616 87.0KB/s 00:00
root@firegate2:/tmp/temp# scp BE/CN.iv? BE/UA.iv? BE/TW.iv? BE/VN.iv? BE/VG.iv? BE/KP.iv? BE/VI.iv? BE/KR.iv? root@
root@’s password:
CN.iv4 100% 35KB 114.4KB/s 00:00
CN.iv6 100% 47KB 66.0KB/s 00:00
UA.iv4 100% 23KB 115.2KB/s 00:00
UA.iv6 100% 15KB 74.9KB/s 00:00
TW.iv4 100% 4704 93.8KB/s 00:00
TW.iv6 100% 3104 75.7KB/s 00:00
VN.iv4 100% 3888 108.8KB/s 00:00
VN.iv6 100% 3584 76.2KB/s 00:00
VG.iv4 100% 536 40.3KB/s 00:00
VG.iv6 100% 224 20.0KB/s 00:00
KP.iv4 100% 40 4.1KB/s 00:00
KP.iv6 100% 0 0.0KB/s 00:00
VI.iv4 100% 392 33.1KB/s 00:00
VI.iv6 100% 160 15.4KB/s 00:00
KR.iv4 100% 8128 111.1KB/s 00:00
KR.iv6 100% 3616 71.8KB/s 00:00

OK, now we have our pieces of geo ip informations. We now need to install the iptables-mod-geoip from the LuCI web interface (or by hand if you like).
Now you can create your Firewall Traffic Rules. Go to Network -> Firewall -> Traffic Rules on the router’s LuCI web interface and add a custom traffic rule. In my case I created 2 that I called “CinamerdaMuoriUDPeTCP” and “CinamerdaMuoriICMP”, the first to block TCP and UDP and the second to block ICMP traffic.

After that you can setup your custom rule setting your protocol and address families, set “source zone” to WAN, “destination zone” to “Any zone (forward)”, action to DROP, and the “Extra arguments” field like this:

-m geoip –source-country CN,UA,TW,VN,VG,KP,VI,KR

You can check the image below.

OpenWRT Firewall geoip example

Now you can say hello to most chinaspammers and something like that, but don’t abuse, this is not ethic if you set up this on a server that offers some sort of public service.

21 Apr 17 How to create a sparse file from a block device

This is how to create a sparse file dump from a block device:
cp --sparse=always <(dd if=/dev/vg0/vmservice1 bs=8M iflag=direct | pv -pre --size=20G) /opt/backups/vmservice1.dat

14 Gen 17 Come creare un gateway IPv6 su Fastweb

Fastweb ha deciso per il momento di non fornire IPv6 nativo ai propri clienti, e inoltre da qualche giorno ha disabilitato il tunnel TSP ( il quale non risulta piu’ raggiungibile.

Visto che nel mio caso ho un router fastweb Argo 55+ su fibra 100, e il suddetto router non supporta IPv6, quando vado sulla MyFastPage e cerco di attivare il protocollo IPv6 il sistema mi dice che devo sostituire il router con un nuovo modello. Io NON voglio cambiare router perche’ lo considero estremamente stabile e performante.

Come posso quindi attivare IPv6 nella mia rete domestica senza dover cambiare router?

Fastweb porta IPv6 ai suoi utenti tramite 6rd ( Questo significa che e’ probabilmente possibile ottenere la subnet in tunnel anche su linux.

Ho preso uno dei miei raspberry pi con raspbian e ci ho installato il pacchetto radvd (sudo apt-get install radvd), poi nel mio /etc/network/interfaces ho messo questo:

iface eth0 inet6 static
address 2001:b07:27b:7b7b::1
netmask 64

auto ipv6fastweb
iface ipv6fastweb inet6 v4tunnel
netmask 64
up ip -6 route add default dev ipv6fastweb
down ip -6 route del default dev ipv6fastweb

Invece di usare come indirizzo ip 2001:b07:27b:7b7b::1 devi calcolarti il tuo a partire dal tuo IP pubblico fisso che ti ha fornito fastweb. Puoi ottenere il tuo ip pubblico ad esempio da qui:

Facciamo finta che tu abbia l’IP, devi convertirlo in esadecimale, ad esempio cosi:

printf “%x%02x:%x%02x::\n” `echo |tr . ” “`

Quello che otterrai, ad esempio 27b:7b7b:: va accodato al prefisso di fastweb (2001:b07:) e come suffisso accodi il numero 1.

In questo caso, quindi, l’IP diventa:

2001:b07:27b:7b7b::1 che e’ stato costruito da [2001:b07]:[b07:27b:7b7b]::[1]. La prima e’ fissa, la seconda dipende dal tuo IP pubblico e infine 1. Questo andra’ messo nella riga “address” nel file /etc/network/interfaces che ti dicevo prima e va anche messo nella direttiva “prefix” del radvd.conf, ma in ques’ultimo caso senza l’1 finale.

Crea il file /etc/radvd.conf e mettici dentro questo:

interface eth0
AdvSendAdvert on;
MinRtrAdvInterval 3;
MaxRtrAdvInterval 10;

prefix 2001:b07:27b:7b7b::/64
AdvOnLink on;
AdvAutonomous on;
AdvRouterAddr on;

RDNSS 2001:4860:4860::8888
AdvRDNSSLifetime 20;

Riavvia il raspberry pi e se tutto va bene, sempre nel raspberry pi dovrai avere una scheda di rete virtuale chiamata ipv6fastweb senza IP usabili ma che serve per creare il tunnel con il border gateway di fastweb ( Se non funziona, prova a cercare un altro border gateway, magari chiedendo al numero verde o cercando su internet. A me funziona con questo. Metti quello giusto alla direttiva “endpoint” del file “interfaces”.

Poi avrai l’IP pubblico IPv6 che ti sei calcolato (nel caso di esempio 2001:b07:27b:7b7b::1/64) sulla scheda eth0 e avrai il tuo radvd che invia i router advertisement ipv6 alla tua rete.

Ogni PC nella tua rete che supporta IPv6 otterrà un IP pubblico nella subnet che ti sei calcolato, e sara’ raggiungibile direttamente da internet tramite IPv6.

Bello no? Ovviamente se abilitate questo dovete disabilitare IPv6 sul router di fastweb perche’ sara il vostro raspberry pi a fare da router ipv6.

Commentate sotto, mi raccomando! Fatemi sapere.

A me funziona perfettamente e sono molto felice. Credo che Fastweb dovrebbe creare una guida ufficiale su questo per il bene degli utenti. Ci ho messo 2 ore a farlo funzionare, con una guida ci avrei messo 2 minuti.



10 Ago 16 Shared memory and huge pages

This script can be used to determine how many shared memory is used by “oracle” user’s processes, and how many huge page memory is used:

t=0; for i in `ipcs -m  | grep oracle | awk ‘{print $5}’`; do echo “Oracle consumed other $i bytes”; let t=t+$i; done

echo “Consumed by oracle as shared memory segments: $t bytes”
let t=t/1024
let g=t/1024/1024;
echo “Memory conversions: ~ $t kbytes | ~ $g GB”

hugepagetot=`cat /proc/meminfo | grep HugePages_Total | awk -F’:’ ‘{print $2}’`
hugepagefree=`cat /proc/meminfo | grep HugePages_Free | awk -F’:’ ‘{print $2}’`
let usedhugepages=hugepagetot-hugepagefree
let totkbinhigepage=usedhugepages*2048

echo “Total hugepage usage in kb: $totkbinhigepage”

06 Mag 16 How to convert URI to query string parameters with mod_rewrite

You may need to convert URI levels to query string parameters, for example if want to be RESTful compliant with PHP.

Try this one:

RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule ^/(\w+)/(\w+)$ /path_of_index.php?lev1=$1&lev2=$2 [QSA,L]

In this case the first URI level will be converted to a query string parameter called lev1, while the second will be converted to a query string parameter called lev2, each one with the respective values.

For example, the uri /user/list will be passed to index.php and will become index.php?lev1=user&lev2=list

An eventual query string will be passed, eventually overriding lev1 and lev2 parameters.

16 Apr 16 How to check if JCE Unlimited Strength policy is installed

JCE Unlimited Strength policy files are two files distributed by Oracle (this is for jdk8: that must be installed inside your JDK/jre/lib/security path if you want to unlock high strength cryptographic security for you java environment.

You need it for sure in a server environment outside USA.

If you don’t have this stuff installed, your jboss, tomcat, or any other server or client with a keylength higher than 1024 will not work.
To enable JCE Unlimited Strength you simply need to unzip the file downloaded from Oracle and copy US_export_policy.jar and local_policy.jar files in <JDK>/jre/lib/security.

You can check if JCE is unlimited using this command:

jrunscript -e ‘exit (javax.crypto.Cipher.getMaxAllowedKeyLength(“RC5”) >= 256);’; if [ $? -eq 1 ]; then echo “JCE Unlimited OK”; else echo “JCE NOT Unlimited”; fi

The jrunsctipt command is installed inside your JDK/bin path.


09 Apr 16 Getting in love with Docker Machine!!

Docker is becoming the “today standard” of lxs linux containers.
I think I will avoid learning Kubernetes to handle dockerized hosts, and I will study Docker Engine, Docker Swarm and Docker Machine and its REST APIs instead.

I started from here:

28 Nov 15 How to enable HTML5 video playback in firefox

If you use Mozilla Firefox and you want to view video streaming with HTML5 embedded players, you may need to enable some video functionality into the firefox configuration.
For some reason obscure to me Mozilla Firefox will not play some HTML5 based video streaming, and the embedded player will probably fall back to Adobe Flash based streaming (that is what I don’t want since it’s closed source and it’s a very insecure application).

For example, youtube has a HTML5 based player that you could choose to use instead of flv. You can verify and enable HTML5 based streaming functionality of your browser navigating to

In my case (Firefox 64 bit on Linux Debian) the tabs “Media Source Extensions”, “MSE & H.264” and “MSE & WebM VP9” are disabled by default.

If you want to enable those functionalities simply write “about:config” into the firefox navigation bar.
You will be alerted to pay attention to not modify things or your warranty will be broken.
Just ignore the warning and proceed.

Now, if you did not already, switch the following configuration parameters to true:

If you try to refresh the HTML5 based youtube player, you should hopefully have all video streaming tabs ready and enabled.
If you want, you can now switch the youtube default player to HTML5.

24 Nov 15 HTTP request header from a query string parameter on apache reverse proxy

Suppose you have a apache httpd server working as a reverse proxy. Now suppose that this server has to set a HTTP request header called “token” to be attached to every request made to the backends, and that the header’s value must be copied from a query string parameter called “querytoken”.

This can be simply done with the help of mod_headers + mod_rewrite.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (?:^|&)querytoken=([^&]+)
RewriteRule (.*) - [E=QS_TOKEN:%1]

RequestHeader set token %{QS_TOKEN}e env=QS_TOKEN
ProxyPass / http://your_backend/

Will your external client make a request like this:

GET /?querytoken=somestuff HTTP/1.0
Host: example

The request header that apache will do to the backend will be something like this:

GET /?token=somestuff HTTP/1.1
token: somestuff
X-Forwarded-Host: example
X-Forwarded-Server: myserver.linux
Connection: Keep-Alive

The request header “token” with value “somestuff” is added to the request made to the backend.