Blog di Bernardino (Dino) Ciuffetti

08 Mar 12 How to execute a HTTP/Rest Query to NuvolaBase distributed database with PHP

As previously said, is a great service that permits you to have a distributed nosql document database in the cloud. This is very cool: think each time you would had the need of a database always available in the cloud that you would access via simple HTTP/Rest queries. The possibilities are endless.

Here is a very simple but powerful PHP curl agent to submit commands (queries) to nuvolabase via HTTP.

* Author: Dino Ciuffetti <>
* Object: Execute a remote query to a distributed database on (free account) using HTTP (OrientDB REST API)

/* user configurable parameters */
$nuvolabasedb = ‘db$free$youruser$yourdb’;
$command = ‘select from yourclass’;
$user = ‘admin’;
$password = ‘qwerty’;
$useragent = “NuvolaBase PHP REST agent/v0.8 (compatible; Mozilla 4.0; MSIE 5.5;”;
/* END of user configurable parameters */

$nuvolabasehost = ‘’;
$url = ‘http://’.$user.’:’.$password.’@’.’’.$nuvolabasedb.’/sql/’;

$ch = curl_init();

// set user agent
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_USERAGENT, $useragent);

// return the result or false in case of errors
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);

// set the target url
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url);

// do basic login authentication

// howmany parameter to post
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, 1);

// the post data to send
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $command);

// execute curl,fetch the result and close curl connection
$res = curl_exec ($ch);
curl_close ($ch);

// display result
if ($res !== FALSE);
print_r (json_decode($res));


Please use the attached file.


02 Feb 12 NuvolaBase: the new no-sql company behind OrientDB launches the Graph Database in the Cloud

London, UK – NuvolaBase Ltd is a London-based startup that is about to revolutionize the database market. Only two years ago this market was dominated by few big players such as Oracle, IBM and Microsoft. Something, in the last 24 months, has changed thanks to the “NoSQL” movement which focused on alternative solutions to the ordinary Relational DBMS’s due to the pressing and increasing demands for better performance and higher scalability.

Today the largest IT companies avail themselves of NoSQL solutions to manage Mission Critical projects. Google, Amazon, Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter, Disney, MTV, Craiglist and FourSquare are amongst the most famous ones.

After just a year of testing, NuvolaBase comes out of Alpha version, offering a NoSQL database of high performance as a cloud-based service. This way the database is no longer a software component that needs installing, configuring and maintaining, but it becomes a distributed service that is always available on the internet.

Web Site:
Follow us on Twitter:!/nuvolabase

26 Gen 12 liborient, OrientDB C library migrated to github

I never said before on those pages that some months ago I migrated liborient to github: liborient project page.

For those who do not know liborient, it’s a LGPLv3 library that can be used by C programs to interact with the OrientDB DBMS Server using the orientdb binary protocol. At the time of this writing it’s in development stage, but almost all low level binary protocol methods are implemented and should be quite working.

After fixing some (well known) memory leaks on the new odocument interface, I’m now working on a high level API that can be used by C programs to manipulate objects going to and coming from OrientDB Server.
You can, for example, put or get records to/from the server containing different data type fields. Those fields are organized into an object that OrientDB calls Document. This Document can include structured types like: integers, shorts, dates, strings, binary, char, float, collections, maps, documents embedded into documents, and more.
The liborient’s new odocument higher level API should make you comfortable to access and manipulate this documents.
This can be, for example, a good starting point to create native bindings for other languages like PHP, python, perl, ruby, etc.

At the moment I am the author and the only developer on this project, but if you are brave you can join and submit patches, test the code, open bugs, put your considerations, and so on. Feel free to send me a mail, add a comment to this page, write to the orientdb mailing list, send me a tweet at @tuxweb, or anything else.

12 Ott 11 NuvolaBase project – Thu 20th I’ll be in London

On Thu 20th, I’ll fly to London City, I have to accomplish a interesting task for the NuvolaBase project.

News will come.

16 Set 11 Lettera del Sindaco di Roma ai suoi cittadini

Oggi leggendo la posta elettronica ho visto una mail proveniente niente popò di meno che dal Sindaco di Roma Giovanni Alemanno.
Si tratta della protesta che stanno facendo molti Comuni italiani dopo i gravi tagli previsti dalla manovra finanziaria del Governo italiano.

Segue la trascrizione del testo:


Carissimi cittadini,
oggi ho comunicato al Prefetto e al Ministro dell’Interno che Roma Capitale non è
più in grado di garantire i servizi ai cittadini. Come è stato deciso
dall’Associazione Nazionale Comuni Italiani (ANCI), chiuderò simbolicamente
l’ufficio Anagrafe e stato civile come stanno facendo quasi tutti i miei colleghi Sindaci.

Si tratta di una forma di protesta molto forte, alla quale i Comuni italiani
sono arrivati perché, fino ad ora, non sono riusciti a far cambiare in modo
significativo una manovra economica necessaria ma troppo pesante per le
istituzioni territoriali.

Non vogliamo peggiorare la qualità della vostra vita ma cercare di migliorare
i servizi e difendere i vostri diritti.

Infatti, fino a quando sarà possibile tutti i servizi saranno garantiti grazie
allo sforzo della struttura comunale.

Oggi non è più possibile percé si preferisce togliere ai Comuni invece di
andare a vedere dove le risorse si sprecano realmente.

Ogni anno i Comuni portano soldi alle casse dello Stato per un totale di oltre
3 miliardi di euro. Queste risorse si perdono in mille rivoli, mentre noi veniamo
costretti ad aumentare le tasse o a chiudere i servizi.

Ho deciso di scrivervi perché ognuno di voi possa rendersi conto che la
protesta che Roma Capitale e l’ANCI stanno facendo non è una polemica politica
o una rivendicazione istituzionale.

Al contrario il nostro obbiettivo è solo quello di trovare un nuovo accordo con
il Governo per rendere le nostre città e il nostro Paese sempre più solidi,
competitivi e vivibili.

Per ulteriori informazioni potete consultare il sito

Un cordiale saluto.

Il Sindaco di Roma
In qualità di Ufficiale di Governo
(Giovanni Alemanno)


Lettera del Sindaco di Roma ai suoi cittadini

Alemanno: I tagli ai Comuni sono tagli ai tuoi diritti

31 Ago 11 CVE-2011-3192 – Apache killer DOS vulnerability

Hi people. On August 2011 has been discovered that apache httpd server is vulnerable to a simple to perform DOS attack. A simple perl exploit has been released called apache killer that make a big number of parrallel crafted HTTP calls (HEAD method) with the “Range” header. This make possibile to the attacker to consume memory and cpu on the attacked server bringing apache and the system down in no time. The attacker does not need large bandwidth to perform the attack.

Anyone using apache httpd in production environment is encouraged to upgrade to the latest apache version that solve the security problem.

If you cannot upgrade to >= 2.2.20 you can use mod_rewrite to deny requests with the Range header like the rewrite regexp below. This is what you need on your httpd.conf:

RewriteCond %{HTTP:range} ^bytes=[^,]+(,[^,]+){0,4}$
RewriteRule .* – [F]

You can find the exploit script on google. I will not put it here.
Ciao, Dino.

13 Giu 11 How to unpack a patch.e2 enigma2 file from linux

The enigma2 patch file, generally named patch.e2, is a packet binary file containing a cramfs root filesystem and a linux kernel in zboot format.
It is commonly used by some TV decoder linux distribution systems to update the system firmware.

I didn’t find a quick way to extract the “/” cramfs filesystem from patch.e2 files from a linux system, so I decided to write a small utility from myself.

It is in attach, it’s called unpack_e2 and it’s very easy to use.
Just compile it with:

gcc -o unpack_e2 -O2 -Wall unpack_e2.c

And call it with the patch.e2 file as the first argument.
The two files produced are cram.img and kernel.img.

dino@dam2k:~/AZBOX_RTi_E2$ ./unpack_e2 /tmp/patch.e2
Team name: RTi Team
Description: Core 1.0
Version: 1.0.0
About: v.1.0
Kernel description: #78_May27
Size of cram image: 47542272 bytes (45.34 Mb)
Size of kernel image: 6584320 bytes (6.28 Mb)
Unpacking cramfs image to cram.img
Unpacking kernel image to kernel.img

Warning: it will work only with the new E2 image format (I think >= Core RC12).

If for some weird reason you need to extract the linux binary kernel file, you must use those commands:
# mount -t auto -o loop kernel.img /mnt
# dd if=/mnt/xrpc_xload_vmlinux_ES4_prod.bin skip=1 bs=836 |zcat >/tmp/vmlinux.bin

P.S. To do the reverse (pack a patch.e2) follow this link:

Ciao, Dino.


31 Mag 11 liborient: A simple LGPLv3 linux C library proof of concept

Today i posted to the orientdb mailinglist and I’ve written about liborient, my very first orientdb C library implementation.
We are searching for new developers to join. This is what I putted to the list.

Hi all.
I’m making an attempt to write a proof of concept, simple, LGPLv3
OrientDB C library for linux.

The library is written in best effort, so don’t kill me if you see bad
code for now…
As a starting point, there is already a very first implementation of
some simple binary protocol methods.
For those there are interested, this is the API that it’s just (it
seems…) working with the latest OrientDB SVN version:

You can view development code here:

1) Install the latest GNU autoconf, automake and libtool
2) svn co
3) cd liborient
4) ./
5) ./configure –prefix=/tmp/liborient
6) make
7) make check
8) make install

Warning: this is a very first proof of concept implementation that I
started to study OrientDB. Do not use it in production environments.

Even if I think “the scalable way”, I’m a Linux SysAdmin and not a
full time developer, so may be the API is not well designed and the
code is ugly.
We need people that write code. If you are interested, please join in
and contribute.

This is a sample C program that links liborient… and works 🙂

orientdb *oh;
o_conh *och;
unsigned long cid;

// create a new liborient handler
oh = orient_new();
// setup library debug level to “ORIENT_DEBUG”
orient_debug_setlevel(oh, ORIENT_DEBUG);
// setup debug callback
orient_debug_sethook(oh, &your_debug_function);
// preparing to open a new binary connection handler for orientDB
och = orient_prepare_connection(oh, ORIENT_PROTO_BINARY, “localhost”, “2424”);
// setting admin credentials
orient_set_credentials(oh, och, ORIENT_ADMIN, “root”, “pippo”);
// setting user credentials
orient_set_credentials(oh, och, ORIENT_USER, “reader”, “reader”);
// create the real connection with orientdb server
cid = orient_connect(oh, och, timeout);
// open the database “demo”
orient_dbopen(oh, och, cid, “demo”, timeout);
// get the DB size
dbsize = orient_db_size(oh, och, cid, timeout);
// get the total number of records
records = orient_db_countrecords(oh, och, cid, timeout);
// close the database
orient_dbclose(oh, och, cid, timeout);
// free library stuff

Any thoughts?
Ciao, Dino Ciuffetti.

18 Mag 11 orientdb svn build

OrientDB is a fast, scalable, open source object / graph database server written in Java.
After more than 20 years of RDBMS predominance it’s now time to switch to non relational database systems, specially where scalability and query response time are two fundamental things to achieve a better user (web or not) experience.

So, how to get up and running quickly with orientdb?
Here we will build on a linux system the latest development version from source in no time: the simple way.

First thing to do is to download JDK Java Standard Edition 6 from
Please note that you will need the JDK and not JRE.
After that you will need Apache Ant. Download it from here:
# cd /opt
# tar jxf apache-ant-1.8.2-bin.tar.bz2
Installed? Good. Now install subversion (svn). You can install it for example using your favorite distribution specific package manager, for example if you are using debian or ubuntu you could use apt-get utility, like that:
# apt-get update; apt-get install subversion
You have now to create a directory where you like on the system and begin to download the OrientDB development snapshot:
# mkdir /home/dino/orientdb-source
# cd /home/dino/orientdb-source
# svn checkout orient-read-only
When finished cd to orient-read-only.
You have now to set your JDK and ANT bin directories into your PATH system variable. You can do it by this way:
# export PATH=/opt/apache-ant-1.8.2/bin:/opt/jdk1.6.0_25/bin:$PATH
You can now begin to compile orient source code.
# ant clean
# ant
# ant test
# ant install
Ok. If compiled successfully, you now have to startup orient for the first time.
# cd /home/dino/releases/1.*-SNAPSHOT/bin
# chmod 754 *.sh
# ./
Ok. Now stop it with CTRL+C and modify the configuration file as you like:
# cd ../config
# vi orientdb-server-config.xml
The first thing to configure, if you need to publish the service on your network/internet, is the bind address. For example, to bind on any ip on the system: <listener ip-address=”″ port-range=”2424-2430″ protocol=”distributed”/>
The second parameter to change is the root password: <user name=”root” password=”pippo” resources=”*”/>
Now start orientdb again:
# cd /home/dino/releases/1.*-SNAPSHOT/bin
# nohup ./ 1>/dev/null 2>/dev/null &
You should now have done.

Connect your browser to and begin to play with your brand new orientdb studio web console:
host: localhost
user: writer
password: writer
database: demo

You can find open and solved issues here:
Subscribe yourself to the orientdb users mailing list service:, and enjoy!!

02 Mar 11 ajax_proxy cross domain php in bundle with orientdb

I’m very happy that my simple proxy php script is now in bundle with a great product: orientdb.
Now, I’m going to take two beers!! Cheers!!!!